Transformer is a simple name but technically complicated device that helps to step-up and step-down voltage levels between circuits. It is an integral part of the electric grid that converts or transforms voltage into a desirable outgoing voltage through electromagnetic induction. Transformers play a crucial role in the generation and distribution of power supply. We can see the application of transformers in day-by-day apparatuses over homes, commercial spaces, and industries. The lucrative scope of the transformers industry tends to study the concept in detail - so let’s sneak peek into all about the transformer.
What is a Transformer?
As stated above, the transformer is an electric device that transfers electric current from one circuit to one or more. The transformers are employed for widely varying purposes of reducing the voltage of conventional power circuits to operate low-voltage devices or raising the voltage from electric generators to transmit electric power over long distances.
Working Principal of Transformers:
Although huge in size, transformers work on the simple principle of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and mutual induction. The law stated, “Rate of change of flux linkage concerning time is directly proportional to the induced EMF in a conductor or coil.” Transformers are equipped with two coils (primary and secondary) at the core, and the laminations of the core are joined in strip forms. These two coils have high mutual inductance helps transfer electricity from one point to another. When an alternating current pass through the primary coil, a varying magnetic flux is. This change in magnetic flux induces an electromotive force in the secondary coil connected to the primary coil, called mutual induction.
The different rates of change in flux linkage depend on the amount of linked flux between both the windings: primary and secondary. To obtain maximum, a common low reluctance path is created between the primary and secondary windings. The application of alternating voltage to primary windings creates an alternating flux in the core that links both windings to induce EMF. The EMF in secondary windings causes a current - a load current. This is how transformers deliver AC power from one circuit to another through electrical energy conversion from one value to another without changing its frequency.
The transformers carry following operations;
Electrical Transformer – Efficiency and Losses
The electrical transformers do not have any moving parts so there is no fiction and hence no windage loss. Although, transformers do suffer losses from iron and negligible copper losses due to heat loss during the circulation of currents around the copper windings. The loss can be reduced if the core is manufactured with special steel alloys.
The efficiency of the transformers can be determined via the intensity of power loss, represented as power loss between the primary and secondary windings. The efficiency of transformers is somewhere between 94% to 96%.
Types of Transformers:
The significance of different types of transformers is according to their application at different places. Transformers can be characterized into the following types depending on their use, construction, supply, and purpose.
Core Type Transformer and Shell Type Transformer.
Single Phase Transformer and Three Phase Transformer.
Step-Up Transformer and Step-Down Transformer
Power transformer and Distribution transformer and Instrument Transformer
Self-Cooled Oil-Filled Transformers, Water-Cooled Oil-Filled Transformers, and Air-Cooled (Air Blast) Transformers.
You can get high-efficiency transformers by Electro-Tech Transmission Pvt. Ltd. Get to know more about transformers based on its application in the upcoming blog. Read: or log on to ettgroups.in for more information.