Design & Functionalities of Transformers Used in the Wind generation Industry

ett_blog.jpg November 18, 2022

Design & Functionalities of Transformers Used in the Wind generation Industry with the growing bar of environmental disturbance, industries are willingly adopting the best way of business with no harm to nature. Wind energy is a prime choice nowadays as an environment-friendly resource of energy. But like other industries, the wind generation industry with no away of facing the dynamic ups and downs of its business environment. Transformers are the chief component of wind generation units and must be designed with the utmost care.

Wind generation unit transformers demand more advanced construction than routine and conventional transformers to perform their smooth functions in the long run. Transformer
manufacturers must diligently focus on the requirements of the power and users. In general, step-up type transformers are primarily used at a wind generation plant, and their role is to transfer the energy from the turbine to the distribution grid. Moreover, such transformers; distinct attributes and challenges impact their constructs. Let’s study the blog further to understand these factors.

Designing aspects of wind turbine transformer 

A. Windings
During designing transformers better care has to be taken of coils with coolants, the higher the number of coolant ducts, the greater the flow of coolants for lowering the negative effect of thermo-cycling.

B. Core Frame 
The coiling of transformers must be designed with end blocking without impacting coolant flow. This will result in insulation and support long shelf life.

C. Coil Shape 
The use of a round core leg shape and round coil window will spread radial force 360 degrees thus maintaining shape and coil insulation. 

Challenges in the Functioning of Transformer

1. Non-constant wind flow
The major hurdle in the smooth functioning of the transformer is the non-uniform flow of wind.
Due to non-uniform or variable wind flow, there is a bubble formation.  Gassing phenomena
occur in liquid-filled transformers impacting the insulation. Whereas in a dry transformer, non-
uniform wind flow affects the winding assembly of the transformer.

2. Harmonic and Spike
Spikes are the high-frequency components present in the input voltage that causes rapid degradation of the transformer insulation system. Whereas when an inverter is used with a transformer it produces harmonics that cause eddy and stray loss in the winding. An electrostatic shield is installed between the primary and secondary winding to prevent the
loss of harmonics.

3. Switch Operation 
Due to heavy fluctuations in wind speed and power generation, wind power generation plants
frequently switch off themselves. Switching off the operation causes oscillatory voltage within
the winding and ultimately causes the failure of the transformer.

4. Vibration
When a transformer is installed inside nacelles (a part of a wind turbine) it faces frequent
vibration. The vibrations cause mechanical stress inside the transformer and cause looseness of the components within the transformer thus affecting its functioning.

5. Gassing
This problem arises in liquid-filled transformers. There is a formation of bubbles due to the generation of gases like Hydrogen, Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, and Acetylene from oil decomposition. The bubbles will create a hot spot and result in partial discharge which at last affects insulation.

From the above points and details, we can conclude that transformers used in wind generation industries are complicated and requires thorough expertise. After installation of the transformer from best transformer company in india, its functioning depends on several parameters that have to be taken care of through periodic maintenance.

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